The Mini is a small car segment produced by the British Motor Company and its successor companies between the years 1959 and 2000. This car, the most popular of those manufactured in Great Britain, was then replaced by the new MINI, launched in 2001. The original is considered an icon of the 1960s, and his saving space with front-wheel drive distribution influenced a generation of car manufacturers. In the international survey to determine most influential around the world century motor, Mini was second, just behind the Ford T.
This revolutionary car was designed by Alec Issigonis in BMC. It was manufactured in the United Kingdom in the factories in Longbridge and Cowley, Oxford, and later also in Australia, Belgium, Chile, Italy, Portugal, South Africa, Spain, Uruguay, Venezuela and Yugoslavia. The original Mini had three major updates: the Mk II, the Clubman and the Mk III. The "Mini Cooper" and "Mini Cooper S" were sporting versions that had great successes as vehicles for rally, winning the Monte Carlo Rally three times. Mini was notable mostly for its easy driving and its great stability: it was a small car, fast and Canyamel, although sometimes the resistance of the motor did not respond to the expectations of hardness that it predicted the prestige of the brand because of their frequent , unusual and expensive breakdowns: their must-see workshop were too repetitive.
We started to sell as Austin Seven and Morris Mini Minor, as well as variants sedan as Wolseley Hornet and Riley Elf.
After a brief stay in Steyr, it created its engineering and Design Office on April 25, 1931 in Stuttgart. The first project was named No. 7 because they didn't want to be known that it was the first. His first important assignment was for a single-seat Grand Prix Auto Union with 16-cylinder engine: the Auto Union P-Wagen (Porsche type 22), which won one of every two races in which he participated.
Porsche had long thought the construction of a quality auto and popular, that it was not a version of the traditional sedans toy. This desire could materialize thanks to the order received by the nazi administration during the year 1934. Thus in the workshop of projects of Zuffenhausen (Stuttgart) was born the first prototype of proof called Volkswagen "V 1", this followed other prototypes like the "3 V" and finally the "30 VW". Then he ran the year 1938 and the war was on the verge of exploding, with which plans to mass-produce the Volkswagen type 1 were parked, produced a military version of the same in 1940.
During the war the study of Porsche dealt with the design of military equipment both Maus tank, and one of the two versions of the turret of the Panzer VI Tiger Ausf. B, or amphibious and off-road version of the Volkswagen (Kübelwagen).
The Allied bombing forced the transfer of the Porsche from its facilities in Zuffenhausen to Gmünd, Austria, in 1944. In 1945, after the war, as part of war reparations, VW was offered to the French. However, the objections of the French industry made that the transfer will not take place. Ferdinand Porsche, along with his son Ferry and his son-in-law Anton Piëch (grandfather of Ferdinand Piëch, future President of VW), were arrested and incarcerated in a prison in Dijon, France, for having used slave in the Nibelungenwerke factory labor medieval where It produced military vehicles for the nazis. Ferry soon rid of condemnation, but Piech and Ferdinand were sentenced to 2 years without trial. During the confinement, he was forced to work on designs for Renault, which would be the future model 4CV.
His son Ferry Porsche attempted to retrieve the company, arranging in addition other vehicles and engines, and making prototypes for third parties, such as the 360 Cisitalia's competition, with 4-wheel drive and a turbocharged 1.5 engine for the Italian industrialist Piero Dusio, project that was reviewed by Ferdinand to his release from prison and filled him with pride by well done which was the work of his son.
Ferry would present the first model of the current brand Porsche, the 356, in June 1948, based on the VW. The first benefits of the vehicle were used to free his father from prison. The 356 initially would manufacture by hand in the Austrian town of Gmünd, and later, in 1949, the Porsche family and the production would move to Stuttgart.
Ferdinand Porsche was also hired by VW as a consultant, and received royalties for each "Volkswagen type 1" produced, which provided significant income to the family, given the success of the model who had her Silk tapestry.
The first Porsche, the 356 1948 original.
Porsche 550 Spyder, famous for the deadly accident of James Dean.
At the end of 1950, suffered a stroke, which does not recover, and died weeks later, on January 30, 1951, seeing circular road the sport with his name.
In 1999, he was posthumously, appointed car engineer of the 20th century.
Ferry Porsche was born on September 19, 1909, was a contributor to his father since in 1931 it opened its own office of projects and acquiring responsibilities. Ferry was the head of the Department of research and development at the Volkswagen project. Ferry together with Karl Rabe and Erwin Komenda begin in 1947 the study of a two-seater sports car on the Volkswagen, project No. 356 that was to become the first Porsche 356, the first history of the brand. The original Porsche is a two-seater roadster with mid-engine and aluminum body. The engine was Volkswagen, but modified to give 35 HP at 4000 rpm. This first 356 was very different from the later series 356. This prototype left the workshop of Porsche in Gmünd (an old sawmill).
For reasons of cost and practicality, the prototype was modified to give 356 Coupe with rear engine, marking a Porsche tradition until today. In 1948 the production of the 356 in Austria was slow because it was missing everything. From 1949, and after the return to Stuttgart, improved the pace of production, by which requested the participation of the German carriage-Builder Reutter, 14 years after Porsche would buy all the shares of Reutter Gmbh. In the car of Geneva of 1949 were presented for the first time the Porsche 356 Coupe and cabrio.
In the summer of 1949 prepare for the transfer of production to Stuttgart, since they knew that the U.S. Army would free Zuffenhausen facilities within a year. At the beginning of the 50 is signed an agreement between Volkswagen and Porsche that the first supply components to the second.
The last Austrian Porsche is manufactured on March 20, 1951, after having produced some sixty coupes with aluminum body. The new 356 Germans will be with steel. The first of these leaves in March 1950. In 1951, Porsche debuted officially in competition, winning the 24 hours of Le Mans in the category up to 1100cc.
The current emblem of Porsche, made up of three patterns created in 1952. The first pattern is the name of the company, located in the upper part of the emblem. The second is the coat of arms of the former State of the free people of Württemberg which Stuttgart was capital and who then went on to take part in the current Baden-Württemberg on the political consolidation of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1949. This pattern is located in the rear part of the emblem and is comprised of two boxes with black and red stripes and other two boxes with horns, symbols of the State. The third pattern that is located in front of the emblem is the coat of arms of the city of Stuttgart and is characterized by the black horse on a yellow background.
In 1955, the 356th is presented. Coinciding with the 25th anniversary of the founding of the Porsche Design Office, out of the Porsche production line no. 10000, a 356A Coupe. Little by little the Porsche are losing their heritage Volkswagen with increasingly powerful engines and greater engine capacity, as evidenced by the 356th career 1500 1956 developed 100 HP and reached 200 km/h. Also in the Decade of the 50 joins the second factory in Zuffenhausen. The lounge at the Frankfurt automobile of 1959 presents the 356B. On November 1, 1960 came into operation the factory No. 3 and two months later comes the Porsche 356 No. 40000.
The latest generation of the brand's first model was released in 1963 under the name 356C, which remained in production until April 28, 1965, after 17 years of successes and 76 302 units manufactured. Then there were already hundreds of 911 rolling on the roads.
In the mid-50s, Porsche I thought on the necessity of creating a substitute of the 356. It had to be a new car because the evolution of the 356 margin was already very limited by its origin Volkswagen. This new model has become the priority of the brand's designers and engineers. For his conception had only two basic premises: the motor should be back and be cooled by air (as in the 356). In the subsequent meetings between Ferry and his collaborators characteristics were taking shape: a boxer engine was preferred, it should be longer than his predecessor to make more room for passengers and the tail of the car had to be type fastback. At the end it was decided to sacrifice the space for rear passengers, leaving it as a 2 + 2.
Porsche 911.El design chosen for the new model was designed by Butzi Porsche, son of Ferry, whose basic forms have survived for 40 years. For motor, the final decision was to opt for a new 6-cylinder boxer, 1991 cc, air cooled. and 130 CV, work of the engineer Hans Mezger, whose base has been used in 911 to generation 997, dating back to late 2011, and whose impressive palmares include victories in rallies like Monte Carlo, Le Mans, CanAm, Dakar, F1, etc. In the development of the engine also intervened a young Ferdinand Piëch Porsche, the engineer who created the Audi Quattro and who became Chairman of the Volkswagen Group.
Thus, the 1963 Frankfurt automobile show presented the new Porsche 901. Peugeot claimed the exclusive right to use names of three figures with a zero in the Middle so that, to avoid problems, Porsche relented, and on November 10, 1964 was born called 911.
According to the 911 range is diversified with more powerful versions, it also found. This took away many potential buyers of 911. Why, and to give a substitute for 4-cylinder to the 356, left an economic version of 911, equipped with a 1600 engine and small equipment. 4-cylinder 911 912 was named, was 25% cheaper and with 90 HP, but renounced the high performance. The 912 was a great success both in Europe and in the United States and more than 30,000 units were sold in three years.
1969 was an important year: renewed the 911, which passes from 2.0 to 2.2 (in version T, E and S with 125, 155 and 180 HP respectively) and the 912 is replaced by the 914, heavily criticized model but which sold well. During the 70's 911 continued evolving and increasing engine displacement and power. 911 appears in 1973 Carrera RS, sports version designed for the type approval for the competition and with 210 HP, which sold better than expected in its version of street. In 1975, the 914 is removed after almost 120,000 cars sold. In 1974, the 911 suffers his first aesthetic modifications of relevance with the arrival of the 911.
1972 Porsche Carrera RS. In the second half of the 70 range was enriching and expanding with new models: 911/930 Turbo, the 912E, the 924 and the 928. The latter had devised as a substitute for 911 and was radically different: front V8 engine, water-cooled and abundant and luxurious equipment. In 1978, the 928 was awarded the title of car of the year in Europe, being the only large tourism win this award. Following the line initiated with the 924 and 928, in 1981 joins the 944.
When the 911 should have ended his days under the weight of the 944 and the 928, it did not, and in 1983 add a version to the 911SC Cabriolet. 911, instead of going to the cemetery, reborn in 1984. Received a redesign deep and becomes the 911 3.2 Carrera with 231 HP, which ended up being one of the most extensive in this model ranges: Coupe, cabrio, targa, speedster, more option turbo look and own 911 Turbo 300 hp 3.3.
1987 Porsche 928 S4. Intended to compete in Group B, is the first Porsche 4 x 4, 959, presented as a prototype in 1984. He made his debut in competition at the 1985 Paris-Dakar. Delays in production meant that not could be approved before the ban of Group B in 1987, so the Super-Porsche was unable to reach the World Championship rally. The 250 copies manufactured became, next to the Ferrari F40 and Lamborghini Countach, the Supercars par excellence of the 80s. The 911 is currently the "ship logo" brand.
The crisis and the new take-off. Since the end of 1980 results and the company's sales suffer and start to accumulate failures. It was cooking a crisis that came to call into question the survival of Porsche in the early 90s. In 1984, Porsche sales were 50,000 cars; at the beginning of the new decade they were half. Particularly alarming was the fall of sales in the United States: in 1984, absorbing 50% of production while that in 1991 only managed to sell 6,000 Porsches.
This was reflected in the range of models. In 1988 the 924, retires without being replaced. The latest version of the 928, the 928 GTS which would be withdrawn without penalty or glory in 1995 appears in 1991. Also in 1991, was presented the 968 as a substitute for the 944, which was a resounding failure. Is it stopped making in 1995 after 11.602 assembled units, many less than expected. 911 was aging versus the competition, should be changed and 1989 presents the 911/964 engine offering 250 HP, which had the mission to be the mainstay of Porsche for the next few years. It was the first model of Porsche in lead traction at all four wheels, which formed the first Carrera 4. The new 911 was unable to fulfill its mission. In addition, the construction of the 911/964 turned out to be very expensive.
With this panorama, Porsche entered the Decade of the 90s with a huge concern. They only had a letter and they could not be mistaken. I had to simplify the range to trim expenses and had to concentrate financial resources on the creation of a successful 911. He was a veteran of the brand, Peter Falk, the elaboration of a comprehensive dossier on which it would define 911/993 future development patterns. In this dossier takes precedence above all agility. So the new model should revolve around agility, behavior, and youth. To improve agility, it was decided to completely redesign the rear train. At the end the 911/993 inherited nothing of the 964 with the exception of the roof line. On the other hand, the simplification of the range was radical, leaving the 911/993 as a unique model for a few months in 1995-1996.
The 911 Carrera Coupe (993) debuted in December 1993, with a new engine offering 272 CV. The 993, unlike its predecessor, it was a success; sales recovered and it was profitable. This made that eventually the 993 was increasing the number of bodies and receive a slight increase in power to 282 HP. 993 range adds new Turbo 408 HP in 1995, and later, came the Turbo 450 HP S. in limited edition. To overcome the economic slump, the brand was encouraged to produce the Boxster in the spring of 96, although the prototype had been submitted three years earlier. The Boxster had developed in conjunction with the future 911/996 which would come out in 1997. The objective was that both vehicles share the as many parts as possible to contain costs and improve productivity (two causes of the aforementioned economic problems).
1997 was a good year for Porsche. Had left behind the difficulties, the 993 was a success, the Boxster sold well, began to recover its image and management carried out by the new Chairman, Wendelin Wiedeking, seemed efficient. In addition, went out to the market the new 911, the first with water cooled engine. This was the last model of the brand whose presentation was attended by Ferry Porsche, who died on March 27, 1998. In 2003, Porsche celebrates the 40th anniversary of the 911 in the best possible way because the 911/996 became one of the best sellers of this lengthy saga, and mixture of the Basic 911 and the Carrera 4S did so with a limited edition of 1963 copies of 911, with a design , and an evolution of the engine up to 345 HP.
In 2002, Porsche inaugurates new factory in Leipzig, where they exit the new Cayenne, the first four-wheel drive Porsche and the first to be able to be used for travel with the family. The Cayenne was supposed to enter a segment that is much larger than that of the sporting, as evidenced by their level of sales, around 30,000 units per year. It was a resounding success. In 2003, added the 612 HP Carrera GT supercar. The following year renew the Boxster (987) and 911 (997), and in 2005 it appears a fifth model, the derivative of the 987 Cayman and the 997. In the year 2008, Porsche introduces the new 997 MkII. This renewal does change the lights front and rear, joining the latest fashions of the LEDs. One of the big additions to the 997 MkII is the new automatic box of Porsche (PDK), leaving behind a box Tiptronic.
In 2009 it began to market a saloon's five-door with the Panamera name. A second rounder, was presented in 2013 the Macan.
Now Porsche is under the tutelage of VW, being this the majority owner.
By 2015, Olivier Blume is appointed new President of Porsche.
1993-1998 Porsche 993 The Porsche 993 is the latest version of the 911 with air cooled boxer engine. The closure of its production marked the end of the Porsche air-cooled, giving it a special place in the minds and the hearts of fans. Following the tradition, Porsche built the car in different variations of body and models. The Carrera RS and GT2 Spartans were specifically for the competition.
1997-2006 Porsche 996 Ena completely new bodywork of the now «911» with a water-cooled engine was installed. The models are: Carrera, Carrera 4 and Carrera 4S and versions cabriolet and Targa and Turbo, Turbo S (both cabriolet models) and 911 GT2, 911 GT3, as well as a limited of the 911 GT3 RS. approval
2004-2012 Porsche 997 The current Porsche 911. Available in Carrera, Carrera S, Carrera 4, Carrera 4S, Targa 4 and Targa 4S, Turbo GT3, GT3 RS, GT2 and GT2 RS. All models except the GT3, GT3 RS, GT2 RS and GT2, and Targa models are also available as a cabriolet.
2011-present Porsche 991 The seventh generation of the 911 was presented in September 2011 in the lounge at the Frankfurt automobile.
1996-2004 Boxster 986 type The first version of the Porsche Boxster. The car had a central-trasero engine with 6 cylinders boxer shorts, offered it only as a roadster.
2004-present Boxster type 987 The latest version of the Boxster, was released on November 27, 2004. Porsche Boxster S
2005-present Porsche Cayman Is based on the Porsche Boxster and is on the market since November 2005 as a Cayman S. Unlike the 911, the Cayman is a purely sports two-seater Coupe. Since the autumn of 2006, offers the entry-level Cayman.
Series of sports cars with engine on line
1976-1988 Porsche 924 Car was originally designed as the successor to the VW-Porsche 914 developed for Volkswagen and Audi initially provided it with a modified engine.
1979-1982 Porsche 931 The Porsche 931 was sold under the name "Porsche 924 Turbo" in the 1980's.
1981 Porsche 937 Is marketed as «Porsche 924 Carrera GT», embodying approved for circulation of the Porsche 924 Carrera GTR race version. This car was homologated for Group B racing
1981-1991 Porsche 944 This model, with the 911 in the 1980's generated more revenue. Body comes from the Porsche 924, but the fenders were extended so that it looked like the 924 Carrera GT.
1985-1991 Porsche 951 The Porsche 951 was marketed as a «Porsche 944 Turbo». This car was the top model of the 944 series.
1992-1995 Porsche 968 The 968 became the final model in a line of evolution for almost 20 years with the introduction of the Porsche 924 and ending with the Turbo S, RS Turbo, and Turbo RS Lemans, which are three different versions of the 968. Series of sports cars with engine v
1977-1995 Porsche 928 Model of Porsche that must replace the 911. This car is one of Gran Turismo. It had a V8 engine and was built until 1995. The first top model range was the 928 GTS. 1987 Porsche 928 S4
2003-2006 Porsche Carrera GT The Porsche Carrera GT is a supercar with central-trasero engine / rear-wheel drive and convertible body of two doors and two seats. The Carrera GT was designated as the fastest car of the year 2005.
2013→ Porsche 918 The prototype of the 918 Spyder sports car was shown for the first time in the Edition number 80 of the Geneva Auto Show in March 2010. The launch is planned for 2013 with the price level of the Porsche Carrera GT (450,000 euros) which replaces.
Sport utility vehicle
2002-2010 Porsche Cayenne I the first SUV model from Porsche in series production. Based on a common platform with the current Q7 Audi and Volkswagen Touareg.
2010-present Porsche Cayenne II the successor to the five engines Cayenne I. Disponible
2015-present Porsche Macan the second SUV brand, compact-size based on the Audi Q5.
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