Tesla, Inc. (stylized as TESLA, previously called Tesla Motors) is an American company located in Silicon Valley, California, that designs, manufactures and sells electric cars, components for the propulsion of electric vehicles and systems of storage batteries. Tesla Motors is a publicly traded company under the acronym TSLA on the NASDAQ index, and that already exceeds the market capitalization of Ford Motor Company.2 Tesla is the car company that has most increased its brand value in 2017 according to BrandZ index.
Tesla Motors gained wide attention by producing the Tesla Roadster, the first fully electric sports series car. Also sells electric propulsion components, including lithium-ion battery packs, other automobile manufacturers, such as Daimler and Toyota. CEO Elon Musk said Tesla is an independent car manufacturer. He has developed the Tesla Model S, an all-electric luxury liftback. Its goal is to produce electric cars at a price that is accessible to the consumer average.
Tesla Motors named after the physicist and electrical engineer Nikola Tesla Serbian origin.
The core of the company is engineering the propulsion system of the electric vehicle which includes: battery pack, motor, power electronics, gearbox and control software that allows components to form a system. The modular design allows to reuse components in different models of Tesla and other manufacturers. The system is very compact and contains many fewer moving parts than an internal combustion engine. Tesla Motors uses induction motors three-phase incorporating a copper rotor and a few optimized copper windings to reduce resistance and energy loss. Tesla developed fundamental patents for his fabricacion.98 power electronics governs the flow of current in and out of the battery pack. Controls the generation of torque during driving and recharging of the battery pack when it is connected to a wall socket.
Tesla Motors designed a gear boxes for the Roadster and Model S. combine low weight with high efficiency to match the speed and torque of AC induction motors. They are manufactured in the plant of Tesla. Electric vehicles contain many processors to control functions of security and power. Tesla Motors builds the firmware of many processors with algorithms that control traction, vehicle stability, acceleration, the regenerative brake, the charge status of each cell of the battery pack and safety systems.
Tesla Motors carries out the design and engineering of bodywork, chassis, Interior, heating and air conditioning systems. Some subsystems of a traditional car should be redesigned in an electric vehicle. For example, Tesla Motors redesigned the air conditioning system to integrate it with the temperature of the battery pack management system.
To December 31, 2011 Tesla Motors had 59 awarded patents and other 230 patents pending approval. Patents begin to expire in 2026. On June 12, 2014 Tesla Motors released all their patents. The benefits of Tesla Motors at December 31 were 111.9 million dollars in 2009, 116,7 billion in 2010 and $ 204.2 million in 2011. Tesla Motors had a net loss in 2011 254.4 million dollars and a net accumulated losses of $ 669,4 million at December 31, 2011
Tesla was founded to accelerate the transition to sustainable transport. To combat global warming and the deaths by pollution due to transport Tesla initially wrote his 'master plan' to influence the industry from its small size and limited resources. It had three main points:
1-. Start with a small project making a few units at a high price. It was the Tesla Roadster. It showed that it could manufacture an electric car performance that dismantling the myth that electric vehicles were slow, heavy, ugly and with little autonomy. Tesla came to manufacture up to 500 units a year. It had a great effect on the industry and Bob Lutz, former President of General Motors said that the Tesla Roadster was responsible that initiated the program of the Chevy Volt, which in turn influenced the program of the Nissan Leaf.
2-. Making a vehicle in greater volume of units and at a less expensive price. The Tesla Model S showed that it could compete with the large luxury sedans. On the same platform Tesla manufactured the Tesla Model X.
3-. Vehicle produced in large volume and at an affordable price. Benefits obtained Tesla with previous models allowed him to tackle the project of Model 3.
The idea of founding a company that market electric cars was born in the year 2003, when General Motors announced that it would withdraw all copies of the EV1 and scrapped them. The company AC Propulsion had two teams working on the development of an electric prototype, the T-Zero; in a team were Martin Eberhard, Marc Tarpenning and Ian Wright, and other equipment were Elon Musk and JB Straubel. To create renewable energy-powered cars seemed unfeasible by the many problems posed by (little autonomy, recharging time, price of batteries, lack of infrastructure, and apparent lack of attractive customers, as stated in General Motors when it abandoned the project of electric car). Tom Gage, AC Propulsion President, proposed that both teams join forces if they wanted to give feasibility to their developments, and Elon Musk Duo and JB Straubel became the trio's Martin Eberhard founded Tesla Motors. Elon Musk had already founded several companies, was millionaire and had the idea of developing batteries for the storage of renewable energy from that studying at Stanford, so the objective were clear. Musk would provide the money needed to take the idea forward and would be responsible for design, Martin Eberhard remained as CEO and JB Straubel was as CTO. The first round of funding raised 7.5 million dollars, most of the pocket of Musk. Other investors were Compass Technology Partners, SDL Ventures and other private investors. In the second round Musk invested $ 13 million.
Early Eberhard was the business reins, while Musk oversaw the design of the car and Straubel vehicle mechanics. So they took forward the first prototype called Tesla Roadster, a prototype based on the Lotus Elise. The Tesla differed from this in motorization and a personal insistence of Musk that body would have to be carbon fiber instead of fiberglass as the Lotus Elise. Musk has invested along with other investors attracted by the ideas of the company in May 2006 in the third round of $ 40 million. The objective was to demonstrate that electric vehicles could compete with the best brands of sports, and with the proceeds from the sale of the first car developed affordable vehicles. In August 2006 published on its website the plan who sought: designing a high-performance sports. In October of that year they received the Global Green 2006 Award at a ceremony presided over by Mikhail Gorbachev for the design of the Tesla Roadster recognized again in 2007 with the Index Design Award. In May 2007 the fourth round added another 45 million dollars accumulated a total of 105 million dollars in investments.
The past two years had shown that they were serious, but the Executive situation was not stable due to economic problems. One of the first investors in Tesla, the CEO of Flextronics named Michael Marks, was temporarily CEO of Tesla Motors to try to solve the situation, being replaced in December 2007 by Ze'ev Drori, founder of an electronics company. Martin Eberhard and a dozen top-level executives were dismissed in January 2008. Tesla was forced to reduce staff by 10% due to the fact that 2007 spending was out of control. The fifth round of funding in February 2008 added another 40 million dollars. Of the 145 million dollars that the company had received, 74 million came from Elon Musk. so in October 2008, Musk took over the work of CEO and Ze'ev Drori becomes Vice President until he left the company in December. Late Model S led to the dismissal of one quarter of the employees and the closure of the office of Michigan Engineering. Darryl Siry, Tesla's Sales Director, resigned saying bothered it the way that the company funded its operations depending on booking deposits for the Model S. He said that he felt that the company was chronically underfunded and infracapitalizada.
When the situation was worse, Daimler AG acquired almost 10% of the shares of Tesla Motors amounting to some $ 50 million in the month of May 2009. Tesla Motors and Daimler AG agreed to cooperate in battery systems, propulsion systems for electric vehicles and vehicles projects. As part of the collaboration, Prof. Herbert Kohler, Vice President of E-Drive and Future Mobility of Daimler AG, had a seat in the Board of Directors of Tesla. In July 2009 AABAR AD bought 40% of the shares of Tesla Motors from Daimler AG. In June 2009 the Department of energy of the United States approved a loan of $ 465 million, which was part of a program of 8000 million dollars for advanced vehicle technologies. The low-interest loan was part of the program Advanced Technology Vehicles Manufacturing Loan Program (ATVM), created in 2007 during the term of George W. Bush to enhance more efficient vehicles and reduce dependence on foreign oil. This money was the salvage of Tesla Motors. The loan was aimed at engineering and production of the Model S and the development of electrical technology Tesla sold to other manufacturers. In September 2009, Tesla announced another round of financing of $ 82.5 million in which Daimler AG, Fjord Capital Partners, Aabar invested among others. It was the first round of funding that Elon Musk did not contribute. To date it had invested a total of 783,5 million dollars in the company.
July 11 Tesla Motors signed a production contract with Lotus Cars to produce "gliders" (complete cars without batteries, electric propulsion engine or components) for Tesla. The production contract was extended to keep the Roadster in production until December 2011 with a minimum number of 2400 units.
The first car of the company was the Tesla Roadster, the first car of series that using lithium-ion batteries are getting a range of more than 200 miles (322 km) per charge. The base model accelerates from 0 to 60 miles per hour (97 mph) in 3.9 seconds and according to the environmental analysis of Tesla Motors is twice as efficient as the Toyota Prius. The final price of the basic model of 2009 was 109 000 USD (91 124 EUR according to the price of today). Until June 2012 2 100 Tesla Roadster in 31 countries had been sold and they had traveled more than 37 million electrical kilometers. The Tesla Roadster appeared on the cover of Time in December 2006 as "prize to the best invention of 2006 transport". Tesla ceased to accept orders for the Roadster in August 2011. The Tesla Roadster uses an AC motor AC which derives directly from the original design by Tesla in 1882.
Tesla Roadster Sport
Tesla Roadster Sport 2.5, the fourth generation of the Roadster
The Tesla Roadster Sport is an improved version of the sporty Tesla Roadster. Tesla began taking orders for the Roadster Sport in January 2009. Accelerates from 0 to 60 miles per hour (97 km/h) in 3.7 seconds, compared to 3.9 seconds for the Roadster. The price of the Roadster Sport starting at 128 500 USD in United States and 112 000 euros (excluding tax) in Europe. Deliveries started in July 2009.
Tesla Model S.
The Tesla Model S is an electric liftback manufactured by Tesla Motors, which began its deliveries in July 2012. The annual production is 50,000 units. It can accommodate 5 adults and 2 children can go in rear seats, opposed to the March. It has an autonomy between 338 km and 507 km cycle EPA, and an acceleration from 0 to 100 km/h in 5.8 seconds to 2.3 seconds depending on the version. Recharge times vary depending on the State of charge, its total capacity, the available voltage and amperage of the charging current. From a plug for 240 V, 20 kW and high amperage can be increased autonomy in 100 km. per hour of carga44 which equals about 5 hours to fully recharge the battery of 85 kWh.
The rear-wheel drive version has an electric motor with a gearbox, while the four-wheel version equipped with two electric motors with a gearbox. The battery pack is flat and is under the car. It consists of thousands of batteries of lithium ion by adding a capacity of 60 kWh, 75 kWh, kWh 90 or 100 kWh depending on the version. The body is aluminum reinforced with boron steel elements.
The United States federal Government subsidizes this vehicle with 7 500 USD (6270 euros). In addition some States subsidize it with another 10 000 USD to a total of 17 500 USD (14 630 EUR). In Europe the price without extras will 69 840 EUR 104 740 EUR before taxes and subsidies. In June 2015 all Tesla Model S had crossed an accumulated distance of 1 000 million miles (1 609 million kilometers).
Tesla Model X
The Tesla Model X is an electric SUV manufactured by Tesla Motors based on the platform of the Model S. home deliveries in the U.S. market on 29 September 2015. The Model X is a mix of minivan and SUV (Sport Utility Vehicle) with capacity for 7 adults. Using the same platform that the Model S. is intended to be more functional than a minivan, more attractive than an SUV and with more features than a sports car. The rear doors are of the Falcon (Falcon wings) and open up. This allows a better access to the rear seats. The battery pack is flat and is under the ground. The battery capacity is 60 kWh, 75 kWh, kWh 90 or 100 kWh.
The Model X will be equipped with two engines with a single speed gearbox, a joint in the front axle and the other in the back, providing All-Wheel Drive wheel drive. Acceleration from 0 to 100 km/h of the base model is 6.2 seconds, while the Model X P100D Sig has it in 3.1 seconds with "Ludicrous Mode", the SUV to be the world's fastest.
The Tesla Model X was designed by Franz von Holzhausen. The chassis, bodywork, motor and energy storage are of Tesla Motors. It has a drag coefficient of 0.24 by the Model X is the most aerodynamic SUV on the market. Telsa Model X was presented in February 2012. Prices will be in the order of 5000 USD more expensive on the versions of the Model S. Tesla Motors plans an annual production of the Model X between 10 000 and 15 000 units.
Tesla Model 3
The fourth model Tesla sells from July 28, 2017 is the Tesla Model 3, with a base price for the version of access of 35 000 USD. It has a range greater than the 354 km according to the EPA cycle. Acceleration from 0 to 97 km/h will be less than 5.6 seconds in the basic version.
The basic model has enabled fast charging (supercharging) and hardware for assisted driving Autopilot function. It can carry five passengers comfortably. It has a trunk back and another minor front with a load capacity greater than any other tourism of its external action. You can stay inside a surf of 210 cm. waiting table get five stars in all categories and all safety tests. You will have a panoramic glass roof.
A year will be produced 500 000 units at the factory of Tesla of Fremont, California. To provide freight service to such volume of cars Tesla will pass 6124 supercargadores in July 2017 to 18 000 at the end of 2018. The Tesla Model 355 übercharge system will be able to load in any part of the world because it will fit all voltages and amperages. Tesla will pass have 215 towns with shops or workshops in April 2015 to 441 at the end of 2017. Tesla will manufacture lithium-ion batteries in its Gigafabrica of Reno, Nevada. It is the factory with the largest area in the world's plant and the second in volume after the Boeing in Washington. It makes more lithium-ion batteries than the rest of the factories of the world together.
March 31, 2016, during the official presentation announced that it had already reserved 115 000 units of the Model 3. Tesla said that in 24 hours he received more than 180 000 reserves, which meant a world record for any type of product sales. On the second day the reserves exceeded the 232 000. In the first week he received 325 000 reserves. That meant a future 14 000 million USD sales. Tesla stated that it was the biggest launch of any product made in a week. Tesla delivered 50 658 vehicles in 2015 and 14 820 in the first quarter of 2016. Each reservation involved the payment of 1000 USD or 1000 euros recoverable in the event of cancellation.
Initially the 3 Model was called Model E, but Ford had registered that name and refused to cede the rights to Tesla. Tesla called it Model 3 but by writing the number as a Model "☰" with three horizontal stripes similar to the E of Tesla in its logo; the word 'SEX' (sex) is formed in this way with different models. Elon Musk registered the name Model and for a future version of crossover of Model 3. The word 'SEXY' with four models of Tesla can then be formed.
Tesla Roadster 2020
Tesla Roadster (2020) in November of 2017 Tesla presented a new version of the discontinued Roadster which plans to market in 2020. It's a supercar with four seats. Top speed of 400 km/h 0-60 miles per hour in 1.9 seconds. 0-100 miles per hour in 4.2 seconds. 1/4 mile 8.8 seconds. 200 kWh battery. Autonomy of 1000 km. will have a price of 200 thousand dollars.
In November of 2017 Tesla presented a model of truck that can haul 36 tons. The first deliveries are planned to be in 2019. It has four electric motors. It accelerates from 0 to 60 miles per hour at full load in 20 seconds. You can climb slopes of 5% to 105 km/h range of 800 km at full load. You will have a guarantee of 1,6 million km. you will have advanced features of autonomous driving and its four independent motors with electronic control prevents the scissors effect.
Tesla Model and
In 2015, Elon Musk unveiled in a Tweet that, after the Model 3, there will be a Model and. It is believed that it will be an SUV derived from the Model 3, in a similar way to how the Model X is derived from the Model S.
In December 2017 Elon Musk unveiled in a Tweet that after the Model and there will be a type pickup truck.
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